Skip Hire sizes
At Norris Wanstead, we have several sizes of skips for hire. It doesn’t matter if it is an office clearing or home removal you have planned, we have the right skip sizes for everything. We have skip sizes as small as 2 yards for small DIY projects and as big as 12 yards for industrial projects. Our skips are in sizes 2 yard, 4 yard, 6 yard, 8 yard, 10 yard, and 12 yard.
- 4 Yard Skip Hire You can also hire a 4 yard skip at Norris Wanstead. With a height of 0.90 meters, the 4 yard skip is able to accommodate twice the amount of the 2 yard skip. It has a width of 1.5m by 2.5m, making it suitable for larger items such as electronics, furniture, bathroom and kitchen refits, and appliances. It can hold just over 17 full barrow loads of waste and 45 to 50 black waste bags. This is perfect for garden clearance, and many other DIY projects.
- 6 Yard Skip Hire This skip works perfectly for home extensions and office premises renovation projects. The 6 yard skip may be used to carry builders waste like soil and pavers stones, and is provided at Norris Wanstead. It works excellently for stashing away heavy waste and materials such as soil and stones. It has a 1.8m by 3.2m width, wide enough to take about 75 to 95 black disposal bags, or 30 full barrow loads of building waste. This skip is popular with people in any area.
- 8 Yard Skip Hire We have the 8 yard skip available, which is perfect for bigger building projects. It’s not that different from the 6 yard skip, but it has a larger holding capacity. Just 1.9m by 3.4m wide, yet almost 20% bigger in space than the 6 yard skip. 100-115 black disposable bags can fit well into the 8 yard skip, as can 40 barrow loads of soil, concrete, and other builders waste. It serves perfectly for extensive home removals.
- 10 Yard Skip Hire The 10 skip yard is suitable for really big home removals and garden clearance. You can also hire this 2.1m by 3.6m wide skip from Norris Wanstead, for your commercial projects. It has a large holding capacity and can contain about 120–140 large disposal bags or 52 full barrow loads of commercial waste at once. If you’re handling a big building project or home removal, this skip would be the best choice.
- 12 Yard Skip Hire If your project is an industrialized one, the 12 yard skip would be a perfect fit. If you need a skip large enough to be used for large scale waste disposal during site or office clearance or commercial projects, the 12 skip yard we have for hire at Norris Wanstead is be perfect. 150-185 black waste bags can fit into this large 2.3 by 4.0m skip at any time. The space in this skip is large enough for more than 62 full barrow loads of slabs, concrete, and more building waste.
Wanstead Skip Hire
Do you need a skip to get rid of waste from your business or your home? Are you searching for the right size at the right price? Norris Wanstead has got you covered. We ensure that waste does not become an environmental hazard by providing a professional skip hire service in Wanstead, we always do our best to work around your schedule. Having worked in the area for a long time, we have a successful history of delivering efficient, professional service, we often get skips out on the same day they are ordered. Over the years we have provided skip hire and waste disposal services for offices, house moves, garden clearances, and even factory clearouts. Our services are competitively priced, representing some of the best prices in the area, but we never compromise on the quality of the service we deliver. Whenever possible we recycle the materials that we collect, and we track every skip to ensure that we take a responsible approach to disposal. Our entire approach is ethical, and we take recycling extremely seriously. We ensure that all of our staff take an environmentally friendly approach in what they do, minimising potential waste-related hazards, and taking a responsible approach to the environment. Our staff at Norris understand the importance of what we do, and will always work with you to recycle items that are cluttering up your factory, office, or home. Our drivers hold a Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) licence, as well as the Certificate of Professional Competence (CPC), and are all polite and professional. So, when you hire our waste services or skips, you can do so with peace of mind. In order to ensure that our skips are always clean and presentable, we paint them regularly. We have a massive variety of skips that we can deliver to you in no time, from a few yards to massive 18+ yard skips, all at an affordable price. Fill out our contact form and get an online quote right now!
Why ou Need Our Services
Our experience in the waste management industry has allowed us to nurture a reputation of credibility, transparency, and quality service delivery. The satisfaction and safety of our customers is our priority. Our goal is to deliver the particular skip size you requested on the same day you requested it and to have the price fit your budget perfectly. You will receive specialist advice, on how to get the perfect skip to rid your home or your business premises of waste, from our robust team of experts who are knowledgeable in the waste management sector. Need an online quote? Click here now!
Norris Wanstead Accreditations and Experience
For our many years of experience in the skip hire and waste management sector, we have been given various awards, accreditation, and certificates. We were presented with our first award, which was the RoSPA Gold Medal Award, traditionally given to firms who have reached Gold Level and have remained there for consecutive 5 years. We received the RoSPA Gold Medal Award because of our dedication to our customers’ health and safety while providing top-quality service. Norris Wanstead is also certified by the International Standards Organization (ISO). Our clients are guaranteed of quality service delivery as we implement the management system of ISO 14001, ISO 9001 and OHSAS 18001 SHEQ. We insist on implementing the above standards because they help in our management and monitoring of operations, general service, customer service, and service delivery. A forever improving quality of service, which will always be above par, is what we are guaranteeing to you. Norris Wanstead is a bona fide member of the Chartered Institution of Waste Management (CIWM). The waste management agencies represented by the CIWM in the UK, and other countries, total over 6,000. These waste management agencies, alongside Norris Wanstead, are also in the sustainable resources sector. As a professional body, the CIWM also comes up with the standards, rules, and regulations for people in the sector – further grading them according to their experience, qualifications, and education. We are also a member of the SafeContractor – a fast growing third party accreditation body in the health and safety management industry. This scheme based in the UK, has more than 17,000 contractors as members, and over 150 major clients. Being a member of the SafeContractor scheme, we will ensure the safety of your environment. We are also proud to say that Norris Wanstead is a registered member of the Wood Recyclers Association (WRA). It is the duty of the Wood Recyclers Association (WRA) to represent its members to any regulatory authority, even the government. They counsel members on any topic or matter surrounding the wood recycling industry. The WRA also creates a good atmosphere for members to network and benefit from diverse opportunities, and further promote wood recycling, both its commercial and environmental benefits.
Government Issued Recycling Targets
The government and the Environmental Agency have set new targets to be reached by all recycling agencies. We at Wanstead work towards the following government set targets: The Environmental Agency’s duty is to protect and better the environment of England and Wales. They ensure that their targets are met while also offering other environmental services to areas that need them, by working with several other government organisations and local authorities. The Environmental Agency continuously strives to improve water, land, and air quality. Animals, plants and other natural resources, as well as environmental pollution, are conserved and controlled respectively by them through effort implementation. It doesn’t end there! They also educate people on issues that are related to the environment, promote household product recycling to reduce its quantity, better waste disposal standards, and so on. Get in touch with the Environmental Agency office in your location, or you can find the head office in Bristol Rio House, Waterside Drive, Almondsbury BS32 4UD. Telephone: 08708 506 506. As for Government Targets, a landfill directive was released. Targets set for lowering the quantity of waste taken to landfill spots in the country is stated in the directive. Starting from the most recent year, these are the targets: The waste taken to landfill spots in the UK should be 35% of the amount taken in 1995 by 2015. The waste taken to landfill spots in the UK should be 50% of the amount taken in 1995 by 2013. That waste quantity taken to landfill sites be 75% of the amount taken in 1995 by 2010. To help make the landfill directive achievable and recover waste, the following targets were also introduced by the Waste Strategy 2000: 45% of waste is to be recovered as of 2010, while 67% and 40% of waste should be recovered as of 2015 and 2005 respectively. The natural recycling targets were published in the Waste Strategy 2000 by the government. These targets were: Composting and recycling should be carried out on 33% of household waste as of 2015. Composting and recycling should be carried out on 30% of household waste as at 2010. Composting and recycling should be carried out on 25% of household waste as of 2005, while each local authority was 30% in the same year. The government, in its quest to reduce waste, for landfill diversion, and to assist local authorities in more recycling, has issued a “Waste Performance and Efficiency Grant”. A list of materials that can be recycled include: wood, vehicles, composting, clinical waste, building materials, batteries, paper, printer cartridges, plastic, furniture, glass, oil, metal, electrical and electronics, computers, and various others. At Norris Wanstead office at Wanstead, you will get updated if there are any additions to the above targets, especially in recent years.
Do you need a cheap skip hire service? We offer waste management solutions, rubbish removal services, commercial/domestic clearance, and so on, with different sizes of skips all at a very low price. Have you gone ahead and made a budget for the service you need? We will ensure you get optimum service from our robust team of experts, who will counsel you in the solution to settle for. It doesn’t matter where you are in Wanstead, we have you covered. What can a skip do for you? Are you looking to hire it for a domestic or commercial purpose? You can work within your budget, as we have the right skip sizes to suit your needs at awesome prices. Planning one’s life and finances year after year is something most people, especially those in the UK, love to do and we realize this. Offering alternative options, which will ensure that your requirements are met no matter how much you’ve set as a budget, isn’t the only thing our professionals are willing to help you with, they are also here to provide sound advice and answers. You would think that the quality of our services, in providing all your waste clearance needs, would be decreased by how affordable our prices are but we still maintain our professionalism and effective customer service. Since you will be getting the ideal skip, amongst our other services, at affordable prices, there is no need to feel like you have to go beyond your budget. Send us a message today to get an online quote, whether your reason for hiring a skip is for building purposes or for home use.
All Skip Sizes
Do you need a skip for commercial or domestic use, and require a specific size? We will provide you with all the skip sizes you need, for any quantity of waste you have. We will have your skip delivered to you on the same day you requested it, wherever you are in Wanstead Got a huge pile of industrial waste you are looking for a way to dispose of or recycle? You can hire any of our skips, which range between 2 yards to 12 yards, if you need to remove some waste from your home. The skip sizes we have include: 2 Yard Skip – Our smallest, and cheapest, size for skips is this size. This size is ideal for a waste quantity that is very small. 4 Yard Skip – We recommend this size for those wanting to rid their homes of electronics, appliances, home furniture, bathroom and kitchen refits, and so on. 6 Yard Skip – Perfect for those doing house extension projects or renovations on their business premises. 8 Yard Skip – Those in the market for skips that can contain waste and refits that are bigger than those used with the 6 yard skip, this is the best size. 10 Yard Skip – Go for this size of skip if you are carrying out a large garden clearance or home removal. 12 Yard Skip – This is used for disposing of small industrial waste. Concrete, paving stones, slabs, soil, and so on, fitting up to 62 barrows can be held by one of these.
Are you looking for a waste collection service to rid you of the waste in your home, workplace or construction site, in a way that is both efficient and fast enough to arrive to your location the same day? Are you on the lookout around Wanstead for a skip hire service that will get you a quality skip within hours of your request? We assure you of a quality service. We provide you with a same day delivery service anywhere you are around Wanstead and its surroundings. Call us today on 020 8698 8000 and our experts will be at your door with your skip.
Fast and Efficient Service
When it comes to waste management issues, we at Norris Wanstead understand that it’s a matter of health. So, we continue to not let poor time keeping or inefficiency put the health of our clients and the general public at risk. Therefore, no matter your location in Wanstead or around that area, we will endeavour to deliver a fast and efficient service to you. You will find professionals who appreciate the level of urgency attached to maintaining good public health. Want to get a skip today? Make your request and it will arrive today. It is as simple as that! We want your schedule to go as planned, and make sure you don’t wait until the next day. We will reply to you faster than anticipated, so why not call us today or send a message.
Wanstead Commercial/Domestic Skip Hire
If you need commercial or domestic skip hire in Wanstead, then what you need is for Norris Wanstead to provide you with their wide range of very affordable skips, wherever you are in the city. Does your office need retouching and you hope to clear out your old furniture? Are you clearing out your garden, or transforming your landscape, and you need to clear out all the rubble? We will give you the assistance you need. No matter how large your property, or the quantity of waste contained in it, our waste management experts can take care of it, and let you get back to your business or regular routine without any hiccups.
Why Hire A Skip?
If you are wondering why to hire a skip, Norris Wanstead has decided to provide you with several reasons you should hire a skip, especially if you live or work in Wanstead. Hiring a skip ensures that your environment is clean and healthy. Health is Wealth. Apart from the health benefits, more money will be saved for you to use as you wish. Cut your trips to dumps or recycling sites and buy a skip to save on gas money. When it is filled, a truck can collect the waste and remove it at once from your site. A skip saves you lots of time. Time is money, so why spend the time you should be using on being productive to handle rubbish all the time? Let us manage your waste disposal so you can focus on business and your routine. Do you know you can cut down on the time and energy you put into waste disposal by contracting an efficient, fast, and reliable skip hire service? Have us handle your home removal, office clearing, and waste management issues by giving us a call now on 020 8698 8000.
Domestic Waste Removal
Do you want to stop piling up waste at home? Do you wish you had a professional and reliable waste management team to see to your home removals? Do you have a garage or attic that is clustered with items you no longer have any use for? Our professionals come in to aid you in disposing of unnecessary junk, and collect and recycle all your scrap material. We understand that there are times when you want to change the interior decoration of your home, and you need to clear out the old items in order for new furniture and electronics to be moved in. Also, a pile of unnecessary waste material will be produced in your yard while you are redesigning your home, and we know you will want to get rid of it. To ensure a healthy environment, our professionals will come to remove your waste as soon as possible and have them recycled.
Do you have an office where you run your business? Right now, you might have junk and unwanted materials there. An increase in your workload will likely affect the size of the office you will need. You will need a reliable skip company to help you dispose of unwanted items when you are changing offices. We come in at this point. We also come in to assist in disposing and recycling unwanted office materials. Your small gadgets are recycled at Waste Electrical Sites (WEEE). Before you know it, we will be at your office after you call.
Building Waste Removal
Do you generate lots of building waste from the construction company you are a manager at? Do you need to recycle and reuse some of your products? You will get the ideal clearance service at Norris Wanstead. Your work can start immediately when you arrive because we keep a clean and safe construction site at all times. Is there rubble, aggregate, building waste, scrap metal, hazardous material in your construction site that you need to have removed? Call us right now and we will send our team of professionals to your location promptly.
Collection of Rubbish
We are here for both your business and home rubbish collection needs. It doesn’t matter if you need the service for a particular job or need us to collect waste from your property, we’ll do it the same day so you can get back to your routine. No other skip hire or rubbish collection services in or outside Wanstead can boast of having the kind of competitive prices we have. We make use of environmentally friendly equipment that complies with health and safety standards. Do you represent a multinational corporation, own a home, or manage a business? Your house cleaning, office cleaning, and so on can be done by us, especially the ones that threaten public health.
At Norris Wanstead, we have a team of waste management experts who have the much needed knowledge on how to handle any kind of waste in liquid, solid, gaseous, or sludge form. Why worry about handling waste and getting your hands dirty when you can call us today and we will take care of it for you? No matter where you are in Wanstead, we can sort out your waste management issues the same day you request it. To get an online quote, fill in the form here.
Waste Disposal for Builders
When carrying out renovations on your property or a construction site, you will need a skip to stash the full barrow loads of paver stones, slabs, concrete, building materials and other waste. Apart from providing our clients with skips that will make the process smoother, we also assist in builders waste removal. At our disposal is a team of professionals who understand health and safety standards and are well trained. They are always ready to give you quality service that will meet your needs and budget. Call us today no matter where your building project is situated in Wanstead to get a quote immediately.
We keep track of everything, from the collection to the disposal and the recycling, here at Norris Wanstead. The first thing we do in our facility is to weigh the waste. The materials are then separated manually and mechanically by our trained operators. In a tank where the waste is sent into through a conveyor belt, the waste is separated by air, hand, and magnet. The waste is then recycled into reusable products after this process.
Hazardous Waste Disposal
There is waste that is dangerous to your health and the lives of people living or working around you. These materials are hazardous to the environment as well, and can come in gaseous, liquid, or solid forms. Such waste should not be handled by yourself, to avoid health risks to you, your family, and your colleagues. Norris Wanstead is a professional waste management company that you can hire for waste removal services. Our toxic waste disposal services at Norris Wanstead extend to anywhere in or around Wanstead. We have specialists who have been well trained in the industry, and have all it takes for effective removal of any form of waste; gaseous, liquid, solid, or sludge. Our secure waste collection service is to standard and regulatory body compliant.
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Competitive Skip Hire Prices in Wanstead
If you’re looking for some of the most competitive skip hire prices in Wanstead, there’s no need to go far because Norris Wanstead has the right skip at rates you can’t find anywhere else. We understand the importance of savings, that is why we always go the extra mile to make sure that customers get the perfect skip size for their domestic and commercial use, at low prices. Small skips are considered by many as the best, in that they are deemed the most cost effective for waste management. Skip sizes, however, should be picked based on the amount of waste to be cleared out; small skips for less waste and large skips for more waste. The right skip size should be a perfect solution to your disposal needs, which is what we want for you at Norris Wanstead.
Which is why we have experts available to give the best advice for cost effective hiring of any skip size at all. To make the process even smoother for you, we include the cost of getting a skip hire permit, for if you do not have land of your own to place the skip. This is cost and time effective in relation to getting a skip hire permit from your council office, and saves you from being fined for using public space without a permit. Call us now or leave a message on 020 8698 8000, we will provide you with all the best options and prices.
Get Quote Online
Are you planning a house, office or business premise waste removal? Do you want to hire the perfect skip to help with regular waste disposal that workers have to do on your construction site? Reach out to Norris Wanstead today and find the most affordable skips that work within your budget. If you have a budget set for waste management or hazardous waste disposal, drop us a message right now and we will get you a quote as quickly as possible. Why worry about looking for a rubbish removal service in Wanstead, when you can simply get a quote online? Tell us what you want by filling in our contact form here and you will get a response from one of our experts today.
Compare affordable skip hire prices & order in seconds
It is a good idea to get quotes from a number of local skip hire services in and around Wanstead to get a picture of hiring costs. We at Norris Wanstead totally agree with that. It is best to make sure the companies you request quotes from have been licensed, accredited, and insured. If what you want is to be able to compare the prices of skips and place an order immediately, you’ll have to work with skip hire service providers that can deliver on the same day. We can make this happen at Norris Wanstead; we cut costs for you by bringing fairly priced skip hire services to wherever you are located in and around Wanstead. Why bother with unreliable skip providers when you can work with a reliable skip hire and waste removal service like ours? In fact, we also provide you with alternatives to skips. We have fully trained experts available if you need a professional team to handle your house or office clearance. Message us today and get quick feedback tailored to your budget as soon as possible.
Fill in your postcode and get a skip hire price
Now you can find cheap skip hire services in your location by entering your postcode here. No matter where you are or what skip size you want, Norris Wanstead can get you hire prices. All you need do is enter your postcode in the bar above and click on “get price”. The algorithms we have will give you great prices for the skip of your choice regardless of where you are in and around Wanstead. We don’t require personal details like your home address or card details. We want to make sure the price list you get fits the budget you’ve drawn up, so you can properly start your waste disposal process. Don’t hesitate to contact us on specific skip hire services you may need.
Other Skip Hire Pricing Factors
There a couple of factors that should be taken into consideration when hiring a skip. All these factors are well understood by us at Norris Wanstead and we are going to make them clear to you. Regional Pricing – hiring a skip will cost something different in different regions. If you get a skip for £50 in London, for example, the same size might cost you just £20 in Wanstead. Time duration on the hire is another factor that affects pricing, when you want to keep a skip for a long period of time, you’ll have to pay more. Keeping in mind there are time limits on skip hire permits too. Limitations and Restrictions – you can’t always put a huge amount of weight in a skip just because it looks big. Ask about restrictions on the skip you’re hiring from your service provider. Some items are prohibited from being put in the skips, find out what they are, and obey the restrictions so you don’t get a fine or sanction.
Issues with renting skips in Wanstead
We know at Norris Wanstead that hiring the right skip can be exhausting- more so if it involves getting a skip hire permit. Issues to be considered when hiring a skip in Wanstead are local council laws, red routes, double yellow lines, narrow paths, congestion zones, small front space, pedestrian only lanes and red routes. With the rising population in Wanstead, skip hiring will soon be a more challenging feat. However, you can make use of our rubbish removal services, instead of worrying about renting a skip and hustling for a skip hire permit.
Skip Hire Rules and regulations
The regulation of waste deposits, and the recovery and removal of “controlled waste” is handled by the waste licensing system that was put in place in 1994, replacing the 1974 Control of Pollution Act. Controlled wastes are wastes from industrial, commercial, and household processes in solid or liquid form. However, people who are just disposing of waste from their personal garden were exempted from the need of the license. To be granted the license, whoever is applying is required to confirm their ability to hold it. The Waste Management Industry Training and Advisory Board (WAMITAB) certificate is often presented by people applying to own new sites, to show they are “technically competent”.
Those involved in the creation, bringing in, conveyance, storage, treatment or removal of controlled waste have their own duty of care in section 34 of the Act. The following was stated in the Act: “any escape or waste must be avoided, waste can only be moved to an authorized person, the waste being transferred should go with a written description or you will be penalized.” Waste disposal regulation is handled by special waste regulations 1996 and the hazardous waste regulations 2005.
Skip Hire Permits
Do you want to hire a skip for a construction project that will involve placing it on public land? Then you will need a skip hire permit. Skip hire permits are required when you intend to use a piece of land you don’t own to place the skip. This land could be a federal highway, government road, a street, or could be owned by a third party. You can use your own land or space without a skip hire permit if you have it, only ensuring you don’t cross into land that isn’t yours. Intruding on another person’s land, privacy or space may get you fined, or the skip may be removed and seized. Getting a skip hire permit can cost as low as £20, based on the skip size and council you have to get the permit from. There are more expensive skip hire permits; for about £60, £80 and £100. The local council office can provide you with the specifics you need on pricing. At Norris Wanstead, we consider it our responsibility to ease your skip hire process. We also provide skip hire permit procurement along with skip delivery to make the whole process stress free. Our online quotes also include skip hire permit costs, which doesn’t matter if you have your own land or space on which to place the skip. The permits we provide with skip hire services last as long as 14 days. We can be reached today on 020 8698 8000 if you want to know more about skip hire permits and other services we have in place for you.
Tested skips with certificate
If you’re using a skip hire service for the first time, you might be worried about how safe and effective the skip will be during use. At Norris Wanstead, we make sure you get the skip size you want, and make sure they are tested with certificates. Therefore, if you need a closed or open skip, you can rely on us to make it available to you with proof of efficiency and quality. Call us today on 020 8698 8000 if you have any concerns, and our experts will answer your questions. Alternatively, you can visit us at our office in Wanstead and we will make the tested skip of your choice available – with certificate.
At Norris Wanstead, we allow a large variety of waste to be put in our skips. But there are restrictions on certain products, and they are not allowed in our skips. If it is safe enough, we can take those items from you and get them treated. The prohibited items include medical waste, automotive oils and fluids, car tyres, plasterboard, gas canisters, aerosols, television sets, air conditioning units, refrigerators, heavy duty batteries, and fluorescent light bulbs.
Recycling Targets/Landfill Policy
The Environmental Agency and government have been setting recycling targets for some time now. At Norris Wanstead, we acknowledge these set recycling targets and they are as follows: The goal of the Environmental Agency is to secure the protection and improvement of the environment in England and Wales. Some government organisations and local authorities are tasked with the job of meeting their targets and making sure other environmental services available get to needed locations. This agency also works to regularly improve the quality of water, land and air. They work towards the control of pollution in the environment and encourage the protection of natural resources like plants and animals. That isn’t even all! The body provides public education on environmental matters as well, supporting the recycling of household waste to reduce the quantity. You can reach the Environmental agency at their office in your region, their head office at Rio House, Waterside Drive, Almondsbury BS32 4UD, or call them on 08 708 506 506. A landfill directive was released because of Government Targets. The amount of waste that requires a reduction for landfilling purposes in the UK is specified. It further stated that, from 2007, landfills were to only take untreated waste. Beginning from the most recent year, here are the target: The quantity of waste taken to landfill sites in the UK by 2015 should be 35% of what was taken in 1995. Only 50% of the waste taken in 1995 should be taken for landfill sites in the UK in 2013. In 2010, only 75% of the waste collected for filling UK landfill sites in 1995 should be collected. Furthermore, the following targets were introduced by the Waste Strategy 2000, for waste recovery and to make the landfill directive achievable: 67% of waste should be recovered as of 2015, 45% of waste should be recovered as of 2010, 40% of waste should be recovered as of 2005.
Waste Strategy 2000 had published in it, by the government, the natural recycling targets, which are as follows:
33% of household waste has to be composted or recycled in 2015. 30% of household waste has to be composted or recycled in 2010. 25% of household waste has to be composted or recycled in 2005, although local authority was 30% in that same year. To help the local authorities recycle more and reduce waste and for landfill diversions, a “Waste Performance and Efficiency Grant” was released by the government. Recyclable materials include the following and more: metal, building materials, batteries, paper, printer, cartridges, plastic, wood, clinical waste electricals and electronics, computers, and composting